Engelska oregelbundna verb

Hur böjer man verb på engelska?

Oregelbundna verb

Ett besvärligt moment inom engelsk grammatik är de verb som kallas oregelbundna. Det går inte att ge några tydliga regler för hur dessa verb ska böjas utan de måste läras in på samma sätt som vi lär oss nya ord. Här ger vi först en alfabetisk lista över alla oregelbundna verb som finns i Nationalencyklopedins engelska ordbok. Därefter presenteras de vanligaste verben i grupper efter likhet i bildningssätt som gör det lättare att lära sig rätt böjningsform.

Hur böjer man verb på engelska?

De allra flesta engelska verb är regelbundna och har fyra former:

grundform (infinitiv) walk she likes to walk
s-form (tredje person presens singular) walks she walks
ed-form (imperfekt och perfekt particip) walked she walked
    she has walked
ing-form (presens particip) walking she is walking

De tre formerna grundform (eller infinitiv), imperfekt och perfekt particip kallas verbets temaformer, på engelska the principal parts of a verb.

Förutom de regelbundna verben har engelskan drygt 200 oregelbundna verb (irregular verbs). Det går inte att ge några regler för hur imperfekt och perfekt particip bildas av oregelbundna verb. Dessa verb måste därför läras in på samma sätt som vi lär oss nya ord.

Hur använder du denna sida?

Om du letar efter temaformerna för ett visst verb är det enklast att gå till rubriken Alfabetisk lista högst upp i högerspalten. Snabbast hittar du temaformerna genom att markera verbets första bokstav. Vissa oregelbundna verb har alternativa former. Dessa varianter följer efter kommatecken, till exempel dreamt, dreamed.

Efter den alfabetiska listan finner du grupper ordnade efter mönster eller likheter i bildningssätt, jämför till exempel temaformerna ring – rang – rung och sing – sang – sung under Drink-gruppen. Lägg märke till att det är endast de vanligaste formerna av de vanligaste verben som finns med i denna uppställning. Se ordboken för en mer utförlig framställning. Verb som är sammansättningar, till exempel oversee eller repay, återfinns under respektive efterled, i dessa fall see och pay.

TEMAFORMER – alfabetisk lista

Länkarna i vänsterspalten leder in i NE:s engelska ordbok som ger uttal, böjning och översättning. Spalten längst till höger hänvisar till verb uppställda efter likhet i bildningssätt längre ned på sidan.

Grundform
(Base form)

Imperfekt
(Past tense)

Perfekt particip
(Past participle)

Grupp

A–B

arise arose arisen 20
awake awoke, awaked awoken, awaked 15
babysit babysat babysat
be was, were been se ordbok
bear bore born, borne 16
beat beat beaten 14
become became become 14
befall befell befallen 23
beget begot begotten 12
begin began begun 21
behold beheld beheld 4
bend bent bent 3
bereave bereft, bereaved bereft, bereaved 5
beseech besought, beseeched besought, beseeched 7
bespeak bespoke bespoken 15
bestride bestrode bestridden, bestrid, bestrode  
bet bet, betted bet, betted 1
betake betook betaken  
bid bid, bade bid, bidden 1
bind bound bound 9
bite bit bitten 18
bleed bled bled 4
blow blew blown 17
bottle-feed bottle-fed bottle-fed
break broke broken 15
breastfeed breastfed breastfed
breed bred bred 4
bring brought brought 7
broadcast broadcast broadcast  
browbeat browbeat browbeaten  
build built built 3
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned 2
burst burst burst 1
bust bust, busted bust, busted 1
buy bought bought 7

C–F

cast cast cast 1
catch caught caught 8
chide chid, chided chidden, chid, chided 18
choose chose chosen 15
cleave cleft, cleaved, clove cleft, cleaved, cloven 5
cling clung clung 6
come came come 14
cost cost cost 1
creep crept crept 5
cut cut cut 1
deal dealt dealt 5
dig dug dug 6
dive dived, dove dived 23
do did done 23
draw drew drawn 23
dream dreamt, dreamed dreamt, dreamed 5
drink drank drunk 21
drive drove driven 20
dwell dwelt, dwelled dwelt, dwelled 2
eat ate eaten 23
fall fell fallen 23
feed fed fed 4
feel felt felt 5
fight fought fought 7
find found found 9
fit fitted, fit fitted, fit 1
flee fled fled 4
fling flung flung 6
fly flew flown 23
forbear forbore forborne  
forbid forbade forbidden 23
forecast forecast, forecasted forecast, forecasted  
foresee foresaw foreseen  
foretell foretold foretold  
forget forgot forgotten 23
forgive forgave forgiven  
forgo forwent forgone  
forsake forsook forsaken 19
forswear forswore forsworn  
freeze froze frozen 15

G–M

gainsay gainsaid gainsaid  
get got got, gotten 12
give gave given 23
go went gone 23
grind ground ground 9
grow grew grown 17
hang hung, hanged hung, hanged 6
have had had se ordbok
hear heard heard 14
hew hewed hewed, hewn 22
hide hid hidden 18
hit hit hit 1
hold held held 4
hurt hurt hurt 1
inlay inlaid inlaid  
input input input  
inset inset inset  
interbreed interbred interbred  
interweave interwove interwoven  
keep kept kept 5
kneel knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled 5
knit knit, knitted knit, knitted 1
know knew known 17
lay laid laid 14
lead led led 4
lean leant, leaned leant, leaned 5
leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped 5
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned 2
leave left left 5
lend lent lent 3
let let let 1
lie lay lain 23
light lit, lighted lit, lighted 10
lose lost lost 12
make made made 14
mean meant meant 5
meet met met 5
miscast miscast miscast  
mishear misheard misheard  
mislay mislaid mislaid  
mislead misled misled  
misread misread misread  
misspell misspelt, misspelled misspelt, misspelled  
mistake mistook mistaken  
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood  
mow mowed mowed, mown 22

O–R

offset offset offset  
outbid outbid outbid  
outdo outdid outdone  
outfight outfought outfought  
outgrow outgrew outgrown  
outrun outran outrun  
outsell outsold outsold  
outshine outshone outshone 
overcome overcame overcome 
overdo overdid overdone 
overdraw overdrew overdrawn 
overeat overate overeaten 
overfeed overfed overfed 
overfly overflew overflown 
overhang overhung overhung 
overhear overheard overheard 
overlay overlaid overlaid 
overpay overpaid overpaid 
override overrode overridden 
overrun overran overrun 
oversee oversaw overseen 
oversell oversold oversold 
overshoot overshot overshot 
oversleep overslept overslept  
overspend overspent overspent  
overtake overtook overtaken  
overthrow overthrew overthrown  
overwrite overwrote overwritten  
partake partook partaken 19
pay paid paid 14
plead pleaded, pled pleaded, pled  
preset preset preset  
proofread proofread proofread  
prove proved proved, proven  
put put put 1
quit quit, quitted quit, quitted 1
read read read 4
rebind rebound rebound  
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt  
recast recast recast  
redo redid redone  
rehear reheard reheard  
relay relaid relaid  
remake remade remade  
rend rent rent 3
repay repaid repaid  
rerun reran rerun  
resell resold resold  
reset reset reset  
resit resat resat  
retake retook retaken  
retell retold retold  
rethink rethought rethought  
rewind rewound rewound  
rewrite rewrote rewritten  
rid rid, ridded rid, ridded 1
ride rode ridden 20
ring rang rung 21
rise rose risen 20
run ran run 14

S

saw sawed sawn, sawed 22
say said said 14
see saw seen 23
seek sought sought 7
sell sold sold 13
send sent sent 3
set set set 1
sew sewed sewn, sewed 22
shake shook shaken 19
shear sheared shorn, sheared 22
shed shed shed 1
shine shone shone 12
shit shit, shat shit, shat 1
shoe shod shod  
shoot shot shot 12
show showed shown 22
shrink shrank shrunk 21
shut shut shut 1
simulcast simulcast simulcast  
sing sang sung 21
sink sank sunk 21
sit sat sat 11
slay slew slain 23
sleep slept slept 5
slide slid slid 10
sling slung slung 6
slink slunk slunk 6
slit slit slit 1
smell smelt, smelled smelt, smelled 2
smite smote smitten 20
sow sowed sown, sowed 22
speak spoke spoken 15
speed sped sped 4
spell spelt, spelled spelt, spelled 2
spend spent spent 3
spill spilt, spilled spilt, spilled 2
spin spun spun 6
spit spat, spit spat, spit 11
split split split 1
spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled 2
spoon-feed spoon-fed spoon-fed  
spotlight spotlit spotlit  
spread spread spread 1
spring sprang sprung 21
stand stood stood 14
steal stole stolen 15
stick stuck stuck 6
sting stung stung 6
stink stank stunk 21
strew strewed strewed, strewn 22
stride strode stridden 20
strike struck struck 6
string strung strung 6
strive strove striven 20
sublet sublet sublet  
swear swore sworn 16
sweep swept swept 5
swell swelled swollen, swelled 22
swim swam swum 21
swing swung swung 6

T–W

take took taken 19
teach taught taught 8
tear tore torn 16
telecast telecast telecast  
tell told told 13
think thought thought 7
throw threw thrown 17
thrust thrust thrust 1
tread trod trodden, trod 23
typeset typeset typeset  
unbend unbent unbent  
unbind unbound unbound  
underbid underbid underbid  
undercut undercut undercut  
undergo underwent undergone  
underlie underlay underlain  
underpay underpaid underpaid  
undersell undersold undersold  
understand understood understood  
undertake undertook undertaken  
undo undid undone  
unwind unwound unwound  
uphold upheld upheld  
upset upset upset  
wake woke, waked woken, waked 15
waylay waylaid waylaid  
wear wore worn 16
weave wove woven 15
wed wed, wedded wed, wedded 1
weep wept wept 5
wet wet, wetted wet, wetted 1
win won won 6
wind wound wound 9
withdraw withdrew withdrawn  
withhold withheld withheld  
withstand withstood withstood  
wring wrung wrung 6
write wrote written 20


Temaformer – verb uppställda efter likhet i bildningssätt

Verb med alla temaformerna lika

1. Put-gruppen
svart linje
bet
bid
burst
bust
cast
cost
cut
fit
hit
hurt
knit
let
put
quit
rid
set
shed
shit
shut
slit
split
spread
thrust
wed
wet
bet, betted
bid, bade
burst
bust, busted
cast
cost
cut
fitted, fit
hit
hurt
knit, knitted
let
put
quit, quitted
rid, ridded
set
shed
shit, shat
shut
slit
split
spread
thrust
wed, wedded
wet, wetted
bet, betted
bid, bidden
burst
bust, busted
cast
cost
cut
fitted, fit
hit
hurt
knit, knitted
let
put
quit, quitted
rid, ridded
set
shed
shit, shat
shut
slit
split
spread
thrust
wed, wedded
wet, wetted


Verb med två temaformer lika

2. Learn-gruppen
De regelbundna formerna på  -ed är vanligare i amerikansk engelska än i brittisk, se exemplevis burned.
svart linje
burn
dwell
learn
smell
spell
spill
spoil
burnt, burned
dwelt, dwelled
learnt, learned
smelt, smelled
spelt, spelled
spilt, spilled
spoilt, spoiled
burnt, burned
dwelt, dwelled
learnt, learned
smelt, smelled
spelt, spelled
spilt, spilled
spoilt, spoiled

3. Spend-gruppen
svart linje
bend
build
lend
rend
send
spend
bent
built
lent
rent
sent
spent
bent
built
lent
rent
sent
spent

4. Read-gruppen
svart linje
behold
bleed
breed
feed
flee
hold
lead
read
speed
beheld
bled
bred
fed
fled
held
led
read
sped
beheld
bled
bred
fed
fled
held
led
read
sped

5. Sleep-gruppen
svart linje
bereave
cleave
creep
deal
dream
feel
keep
kneel
lean
leap
leave
mean
meet
sleep
sweep
weep
bereft, bereaved
cleft, cleaved, clove
crept
dealt
dreamt, dreamed
felt
kept
knelt, kneeled
leant, leaned
leapt, leaped
left
meant
met
slept
swept
wept
bereft, bereaved
cleft, cleaved, cloven
crept
dealt
dreamt, dreamed
felt
kept
knelt, kneeled
leant, leaned
leapt, leaped
left
meant
met
slept
swept
wept

6. Sting-gruppen
svart linje
cling
dig
fling
hang
sling
slink
spin
stick
sting
strike
string
swing
win
wring
clung
dug
flung
hung
slung
slunk
spun
stuck
stung
struck
strung
swung
won
wrung
clung
dug
flung
hung
slung
slunk
spun
stuck
stung
struck
strung
swung
won
wrung

7. Bring-gruppen
svart linje
beseech
bring
buy
fight
seek
think
besought, beseeched
brought
bought
fought
sought
thought
besought, beseeched
brought
bought
fought
sought
thought

8. Catch-gruppen
svart linje
catch
teach
caught
taught
caught
taught

9. Find-gruppen
svart linje
bind
find
grind
wind
bound
found
ground
wound
bound
found
ground
wound

10. Light-gruppen
svart linje
light
slide
lit, lighted
slid
lit, lighted
slid

11. Sit-gruppen
svart linje
sit
spit
sat
spat, spit
sat
spat, spit

12. Get-gruppen
svart linje
beget
get
lose
shine
shoot
begot
got
lost
shone
shot
begotten
got, gotten
lost
shone
shot

13. Sell-gruppen
svart linje
sell
tell
sold
told
sold
told

14. Blandad grupp
svart linje
Imperfekt = perfekt particip
hear
lay
make
pay
say
stand
heard
laid
made
paid
said
stood
heard
laid
made
paid
said
stood
Grundform = perfekt particip
come
become
run
came
became
ran
come
become
run
Grundform = imperfekt
beat
beat
beaten


Verb med alla tre temaformerna olika

15. Speak-gruppen
svart linje
bespeak
break
choose
freeze
speak
steal
wake
awake
weave
bespoke
broke
chose
froze
spoke
stole
woke, waked
awoke, awaked
wove
bespoken
broken
chosen
frozen
spoken
stolen
woken, waked
awoken, awaked
woven

16. Wear-gruppen
svart linje
bear
swear
tear
wear
bore
swore
tore
wore
born, borne
sworn
torn
worn

17. Know-gruppen
svart linje
blow
grow
know
throw
blew
grew
knew
threw
blown
grown
known
thrown

18. Bite-gruppen
svart linje
bite
chide
hide
bit
chid, chided
hid
bitten
chidden, chid, chided
hidden

19. Take-gruppen
svart linje
partake
forsake
shake
take
partook
forsook
shook
took
partaken
forsaken
shaken
taken

20. Write-gruppen
svart linje
arise
drive
ride
rise
smite
stride
strive
write
arose
drove
rode
rose
smote
strode
strove
wrote
arisen
driven
ridden
risen
smitten
stridden
striven
written

21. Drink-gruppen
svart linje
begin
drink
ring
shrink
sing
sink
spring
stink
swim
began
drank
rang
shrank
sang
sank
sprang
stank
swam
begun
drunk
rung
shrunk
sung
sunk
sprung
stunk
swum

22. Mow-gruppen
Perfekt particip kan vara regelbundet eller oregelbundet
svart linje
hew
mow
saw
sew
shear
show
sow
strew
swell
hewed
mowed
sawed
sewed
sheared
showed
sowed
strewed
swelled
hewed, hewn
mowed, mown
sawed, sawn
sewn, sewed
shorn, sheared
shown
sown, sowed
strewed, strewn
swollen, swelled

23. Andra verb med alla tre temaformerna olika
svart linje
befall
dive
do
draw
eat
fall
fly
forbid
forget
forgive
give
go
lie
see
slay
tread
befell
dived, dove
did
drew
ate
fell
flew
forbade
forgot
forgave
gave
went
lay
saw
slew
trod
befallen
dived
done
drawn
eaten
fallen
flown
forbidden
forgotten
forgiven
given
gone
lain
seen
slain
trodden, trod